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ARUNACHAL PRADESH: AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURAL POLICY, 2001

 

•  Arunachal Pradesh is slowly developing its economy with the objective of improving the quality of life of its people. The task ahead are up hill, the resources available are plenty but the ways and means to achieve the objective through gainful utilisation of the resources are not well defined. Technology has been relegated to the back resulting in stagnation of growth. However, the State has gained much over the years, it is now necessary to consolidate the gains in order to make it sustainable and add new dimension during the coming years, so as to increase household income generation.

•  Keeping all these factors in mind and the need for achieving higher economic growth and creating job opportunities for the rural unemployed through Agriculture and allied sector, it is necessary for the state to have a well defined policy. The policy should govern the entire gamut of Agriculture scenario of the State. Towards that goal, the new State Policy on Agriculture has to deal with the multifaceted problems and devise ways & means to redress them.

•  The major constraints are low level of productivity, capital inadequacy, lack of infrastructural support, unfavourable terrain, high cost of production along with demand side constraints.

The non availability of basic preservation, storage and processing facilities, low value addition and unfavourable price of Agricultural commodities are severally affecting agriculture as a whole which directly encourages migration from rural areas to urban centres.

The Policy Objectives

2.1. Top priority to be accorded on increasing farmers' income:

The new policy would accord top priority to increasing the incomes of farmers. This is necessary in view of the topographic disadvantages, communication bottleneck that hinders other income generating activities. The Policy, therefore, emphasized all income generating activities like Cash crop, Floriculture, Fruit culture, Fish and Pig rearing, Agro-processing and so on along with all other activities that are considered necessary for the purpose.

2.2. Addressing problems related to Shifting Cultivation:

Special emphasis to be given on shifting cultivation, ensuring better land management, introducing improved cultivation in slope land through Agro-forestry, Horticulture and encouraging other household activities. The programme is to be designed in such a way that there would be simultaneous thrust in weaning the Jhum farmers towards better cultivation.

In this regard observations of S.P. Shukla Commission Report on “Transforming the Northeast” (March 1997) pertaining to Jhum Farming is worth nothing:

“Hill farming in the Northeast is largely under Jhum through there are some excellent terraces in certain states and expanding patches of west rice cultivation. Jhum farming is becoming less productive with a shrinking Jhum cycle and has caused erosion and forest regression in certain areas. Not all Jhumias resettlement schemes have worked well; nor can Jhuming be ended all at one. The problem needs to be tackled sensitively as Jhum cultivation is also a way of life”.

“The ICAR has evolved a three-tier hill farming package combining forestry, horticulture or tree farming and terraced cultivation as one moves down the hills. Jhum improvement is advocated by others and can be carried further through appropriate R&D. Nagaland has pioneered an excellent method of upgrading Jhum by interposing a strong and increasing component of agro-forestry through assisted tree planting of selected fast growing economic timber, the menu being a product of meticulous exercise in bio-diversity mapping, documentation and breeding of plant material for widespread propagation”.

2.3. Location specific strategy development:

Efforts would be made to formulate an area specific differentiated strategy taking into account the agronomic, climatic, socio-economic practices as well as the resource worthiness of the farmer. Special emphasis will be made for introducing the newly developed H.Y.V. seeds, improved planting material, adoption of new technology and mechanised farming.

2.4. Convergence of allied activities:

There would be a shift from the commodity approach to system approach in Agriculture. All the land based activities like that of Agriculture, Horticulture, Sericulture, Live Stocks, Fish rearing etc. would be given a new dimension and synergetic functional assignment. The ultimate objective is to create conditions which would help the farming community to maximize incomes. The policy will aim at avoiding duplication of programmes/works by different functionaries, as far as possible. Towards that end, there will be regular monitoring and evaluation of all schemes implemented by Agriculture and allied Departments through appropriate mechanism.

2.5. Technology transfer:

Importance will be accorded to identify new location specific and economically viable improved species of Agriculture, Horticulture, Livestock and Fish etc. Accordingly motivational aspect of Agricultural Extension would receive due attention. The entire extension system will be revitalised. Innovative and decentralised institutional change will be introduced to make extension system responsible and accountable. Development of human resources through capacity building and skill upgradation of Extension functionaries will receive due attention.

2.6. Supply of Inputs:

Adequate and timely supply of inputs such as seed, fertiliser, pesticides, Agri-tools and implements, credit at reasonable rate to farmers will be provided by the Govt. and other institutions, subject to availability of resources and funds. Greater emphasis will be given to increase the consumption of such inputs for achieving the targeted increase per unit areas productivity. As far as possible use of organic manure/compost will be encouraged to avoid ill effects of inorganic fertilisers.

Soil health card, quality testing of inputs like fertiliser, chemicals etc., will be introduced and supply of spurious inputs will be checked.

2.7. Facilitate Private investment in Agriculture:

Efforts would be made to create conditions that encourages participations of the private enterprises in the establishment of Agro-based industries. An incentive package and guideline would be finalised ensuring participation of private sector & financial institutions in the Agricultural sector as a whole. NABARD will have to play a major role in channelising investment. To meet local credit needs of farmers, Rural Credit Banks are to be set up.

2.8. Peoples participation:

The new policy would encourage formation of “Self Help Group”, village committees at different levels. The village committee would be vested with the task of maintaining and managing the assets created so far like irrigation channel, terraces, market shed etc.

2.9. Research and Technology package:

Location specific Agricultural research, based on identified agro-climatic zone will be accorded foremost importance.

Development of need based technology package for achieving higher productivity would constitute the thrust area of the new policy.

Effort will be made to build a well organised efficient and result oriented agricultural research & Education system for introducing technological changes in the Agricultural sector.

2.10. Marketing infrastructure:

Emphasis will be laid on development of marketing infrastructure and techniques of preservation, storage, transportation etc. with a view to reduce the post harvest losses and ensuring a better return to the grower. Direct marketing and procurement by a notified State level procurement agency, as and when required with storage facilities of different items will be made available to the production areas. Upgradation and dissemination of market intelligence will receive particular attention. Efforts will be made to strengthen the market infrastructure.

2.11. Agro-processing:

Setting up of Agro-processing units in production areas will be given due priority. To reduce post harvest wastage, effort would be made to add values specially to Agricultural and Horticultural produce by setting up small processing units. The small farmers Agricultural business Consortium (SFAC) will be activated to cater to the need of farmer entrepreneurs. Tea will be brought under Agriculture sector, but for processing it may be under industries Sector.

2.12. Price Support:

Market intervention scheme involving procurement through a notified agency will be implemented for selected Agricultural/Horticultural Crops so that farmers are assured of remunerative prices.

2.13. Use of information Technology:

The database for Agricultural sector will be strengthened to ensure greater reliability of estimates and forecasting which will help in the process of planning and policy making.

2.14. Flood & Drought Management:

It will be the endeavour of the Govt. to device a mechanism by which the floods and droughts affecting the agricultural production could be tackled. Provisions under National crop insurance scheme would be reviewed facilitating its introduction in the State, subject to availability of funds. In foot hill areas, water pumping system to be provided to exploit ground water.

Further, contingency agriculture planning would be encouraged along with the use of drought and flood resistant crop variety in the affected areas.

2.15. Cost of Implementation of New Agricultural Policy:

The State will have to bear the additional cost of implementation of the New Agricultural Policy/programmes and the annual plan allocation of funds to Agriculture and allied sectors will have to be increased correspondingly.

 

Status of Agriculture in Arunachal Pradesh (Base Year 1999-2000)

­ 1. Total Geographical Area: 83742 sq. km (8374200 hect.)

2. Total Cultivable Area (as on 31.03.2000)

Under Jhum/shifting Cultivation

1.10 lakh hetc.

Under permanent Cultivation

0.90 lakh hect.

3. Percentage of area under High Yielding Varieties

Percentage to net area

29.50 (approx)

Percentage to Gross are

24.25 (approx)

4. Area coverage under:

(a) P.P. Activities

36,500 hect.

(b) Fertiliser Application

22,200 hect

. 5. Per Unit Consumption of fertiliser

(a) To net area

3.50 kg/hect.

(b) To gross area

2.92 kg/hect.

6. Coverage Under Assured Irrigation

(a) To net area percentage

19%

(b) To gross area

15%

7. Area Statistics

(a) Net area (hect)

1.97 lakh hect

(b) Gross area (hect)

2.40 lakh hect.

(c) Cropping Intensity (%)

122

8. Crop wise area, production and yield (1999-2000)

Area in Hect.
Production in MT
Yield in Qtl/hect

Crop

Total Area

Total Production

Yield

Rice

122740 134807 10.98

Maize

35637 48346 13.56

Millet

19800 17123 8.64

Wheat

3896 5096 13.00

Pulses

6554 6634 10.12

Total food crops

188627 211979 11.23

Potato

4960 32434 65.39

Ginger

4399 34890 79.31

Oil seeds

27748 27228 9.81

Turmeric

404 1473 36.45

Chille

1499 1696 11.31

Sugarcane

809 16219 20.04

Seasonal vegetables

12811 37060 20.04

Total commercial crops

52630 151000 28.69

9. Number of institution/laboratory under control of Department:

(i)

Farmers training centre

0.5 Nos.

 

(salari, Pasighat, Kheram, Ziro,

 

 

Ziro, Deomali (Namsang)

 

(ii)

Gramesevak Training Centres

1 No. in Pasighat

(iii)

Seed testing Laboratory

1 No. at Sonajuli P/Patedistrict

(iv)

Soil testing Laborary

1 No. at Pasighat in E/Siang

(v)

Organic Fertiliser Production unit

1 No. at Kheram in Lohit.

10. (A) Major Crops & Cropping Sequence:

Crop

Season of Cultivation

Varities

Paddy

Kharif

IR-36, Mashuri, IET 6666,

 

 

Bahadur and local germ plasm

Maize

Kharif (90%)

G-11, G-5, VC, Deccan 103

 

Rabi (10%)

 

Millet

Kharif

Foxtall, Millet, Rangi

Wheat

Rabi

RR-21, Sonali

Rape seed

Rabi

M-27, Varuna

Mustard

 

 

Soyabean

Kharif

Bragg, PK-472

Pea

Rabi

Rachna, bounnvilliae

Arhar

Kharif

T-22, ICPL-151, PARBHAT

Potato

Kharif & Rabi

Kufri-Jyoti

Ginger

Summer

Nadia

(B) Important cropping Pattern/Sequence:

Rice

Wheat

Rice

Maize

Rice

Potato

Maize

Potato-Maize

Maize/Rice

Vegetables

Rice/Maize

Mustard/Pulses

11. Total Manpower with Department (as on 31.03.2001)

Group A

38

Group B

224

Group C

925

Group D

182

Total

1369

12. Number of Government Farms: 09 (Eight) Nos.

a) Govt potato Foundation seed multiplication

TAWANG

b) Government seed farm

SONAJULI

c) Government Agriculture farm

PAMPOLI

d) Government Agriculture farm

PASIGHAT

e) Government Agriculture farm

YAZALI

f) Government seed farm

JOMLO

g) Government seed farm

TEZU

h) Government seed farm

BOLUNG

13. Farmers and Size of Holdings:

a) No. of small and marginal farmers

 

Marginal

16399

 

Small

17366

b) Average Size of Holdings

 

Marginal

0.61 hect

 

Small farmers

1.51 hect.

14. Financial Support to Agriculture (PLAN)

As per revised estimated

(Rs in lakhs)

* 1992-1993

Rs 808.00

* 1993-1994

Rs 904.00

* 1994-1995

Rs 1057.00

* 1995-1996

Rs 1177.00

* 1996-1997

Rs 1081.00

* 1997-1998

Rs 1250.00

* 1998-1999

Rs 1078.00

* 1999-2000

Rs 1072.00

* 2000-2001

Rs 1105.00

15. Agro-climatic Sub-Regions:

Sl. No

Name of Sub-Regions

Constituent District/Districts

01.

Humid Hyperthermic

10% of area under West Kameng

 

(Foot Hills)

District 9% of area under East Kameng District

02.

Prehumid Hyperthermic

9% of area under West Siang District.

 

(Food Hills)

14% of area under East Siang District.

 

 

12% of area under Lohit District.

 

 

100% of area under Tirap District.

 

 

100% of area under Chaglang District.

03.

Thermic Prehumid

78% of area under West Kameng District.

 

(Mid-Hills & Valleys)

83% of area under East Kameng District.

 

 

80% area under Lower Subansiri .

 

 

90% area under Upper Subansiri .

04.

Thermic humid

77% of area under West Siang District.

 

(Mid-Hills & Valleys)

86% of area under East Siang District.

 

 

53% of area under Dibang Valley District.

 

 

50% of area under Lohit District.

05.

Alpine & High Hills

100% of area under Tawang District.

 

 

12% of area under West Kameng District.

 

 

8% of area under East Kameng District.

 

 

8% of area under Lower Subansiri District.

 

 

10% of area under Upper Subansiri District.

 

 

14% of area under West Siang District.

 

 

35% of area under Dibang Valley District.

 

 

30% of area under Lohit District.

AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY OF DIFFERENT CROPS UP TO 2010
Area in Hect. Production in MT yield in Qtl/Hect.

Crop

2000-2001

2001-2002

2002-2003

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

1.Rice

118000 132690 11.2 129000 157000 12.46 127200 159000 12.50

2.Wheat

4397 6226 14.1 4300 6500 15.1 4800 7300 15.20

3.Maize

38429 52297 13.6 38300 55000 14.3 41200 60000 14.56

4.Millet

20149 17332 8.6 19700 17500 8.0 23500 21500 9.15

5.Pulses

6202 6774 10.9 7500 8000 10.6 8100 8500 10.49

Total Food Grains

187177 215319 11.50 195800 244000 12.46 204800 256300 12.51

6.Potato

5511 36023 65.3 5200 38000 73.0 5455 40000 73.32

7.Oil seed

26278 27176 10.3 28700 31500 10.9 30470 32000 10.50

8.Ginger

4774 35295 73.9 4935 38000 77.0 5194 40000 77.00

9.Turmeric

1219 1872 15.30 520 2000 38.40 546 2100 38.46

10.Chilli

1317 2097 15.9 1800 2500 13.8 1870 2600 13.90

11.Sugercane

847 14358 169.5 825 18000 218.1 893 19500 218.36

12.Vegetables

13345 46993 30.00 15500 48000 30.90 13692 44500 32.50

AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY OF DIFFERENT CROPS UP TO 2010
Area in Hect. Production in MT yield in Qtl/Hect.

Crop

2003-2004

2004-2005

2005-2006

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

1.Rice

127200 160000 12.57 127300 161000 12.64 128900 165000 12.80

2.Wheat

4870 7500 15.40 4875 7800 16.00 5060 8200 16.20

3.Maize

42560 63000 14.80 43300 65000 15.01 44450 68000 15.29

4.Millet

23660 22000 9.29 23700 22500 9.49 24470 23500 9.60

5.Pulses

8410 9000 10.70 9260 10000 10.80 10090 11000 10.90

Total Food Grains

206700 261500 12.65 208435 266300 12.77 212970 275700 12.94

6.Potato

5578 41000 73.50 5825 43000 73.82 5950 44000 73.44

7.Oil seed

31300 33500 10.70 31480 34000 10.80 32100 35000 10.90

8.Ginger

5304 41000 77.30 5508 43000 77.50 5677 44000 77.50

9.Turmeric

571 2200 38.52 597 2300 38.52 622 2400 38.58

10.Chilli

1942 2700 13.90 2007 2800 13.95 2078 2900 13.95

11.Sugercane

960 21000 218.75 1005 22000 218.90 1050 23000 219.04

12.Vegetables

14150 46000 32.50 14375 47000 32.70 14740 48500 32.90

AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY OF DIFFERENT CROPS UP TO 2010
Area in Hect. Production in MT yield in Qtl/Hect.

Crop

2006-2007

2007-2008

2008-2009

2009-2010

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

1.Rice

132000 170000 12.87 135650 175000 12.90 139425 180000 12.91 146500 190000 12.96

2.Wheat

5150 8500 16.50 5295 9000 16.99 5420 9500 17.52 5500 10000 18.18

3.Maize

46450 72000 15.50 47700 74500 15.61 48100 76000 15.80 50000 80000 16.00

4.Millet

25500 25000 9.80 26700 26500 9.92 27000 27000 10.00 29000 30000 10.34

5.Pulses

10900 12000 11.00 11600 13000 11.20 12300 14000 11.38 13000 15000 11.53

Total Food Grains

220000 287500 13.06 226945 298000 13.13 232245 306500 13.19 244000 325000 13.31

6.Potato

6080 45000 74.00 6175 46000 74.49 6400 48000 75.00 6600 50000 75.75

7.Oil seed

32700 36000 11.00 33600 37000 11.01 33700 38000 11.27 34000 40000 11.76

8.Ginger

5800 45000 77.58 5900 46000 77.96 6150 48000 78.04 6390 50000 78.24

9.Turmeric

648 2500 38.58 670 2600 38.80 715 2800 39.16 755 3000 39.73

10.Chilli

2140 3000 14.00 2285 3200 14.00 2305 3300 14.31 2415 3500 14.49

11.Sugercane

1090 24000 220.10 1130 25000 221.23 1220 27000 221.31 1350 30000 222.20

12.Vegetables

15150 50000 33.00 15220 51000 33.50 15585 53000 34.00 15714 55000 35.00

AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HORTICULTURE CROPS UP TO 2010
Area in Hect. Production in MT yield in Qtl/Hect.

Fruit Crop

2000-2001

2001-2002

2002-2003

Area

Prod.

Produ-ctivity

Area

Prod.

Produ-ctivity

Area

Prod.

Produ-ctivity

1.Apple

6733 8513 6.27 6867 9364 6.37 6972 9694 7.32

2.Citrus

19147 24000 5.5 19800 24500 5.77 20790 25725 6.05

3.Pineapple

7329 31980 8.66 7350 32510 8.72 7717 34135 9.15

4.Banana

3538 13200 12.00 3635 13350 12.5 3816 14017 13.00

5.Walnut

2285 51 0.46 2350 59 0.52 2467 62 0.57

6.Other fruits

5096 15340 5.29 5200 15800 5.55 5460 16590 5.82

Total

44128 93084 6.36 45202 95583 6.57 47222 100223 6.98

Spices

                 

1.Large Cardamom

2142 507 0.40 2250 252 0.45 2362 551 0.47

2.Black Pepper

635 117 0.89 670 150 0.93 703 158 0.97

3.Other spices

6483 29393 7.89 6510 30100 8.28 6835 31605 8.69

Total

9260 30017 3.06 9430 30775 3.22 9900 32314 3.37

Grand Total

53388 123101 54632 126358 57122 132537

AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HORTICULTURE CROPS UP TO 2010
Area in Hect. Production in MT yield in Qtl/Hect.

Crop

2003-2004

2004-2005

2005-2006

Area

Prod.

Produ-ctivity

Area

Prod.

Produ-ctivity

Area

Prod.

Produ-ctivity

1.Apple

7320 10178 7.56 7686 10687 7.93 8070 11544 8.56

2.Citrus

21829 27011 6.35 22920 28361 6.66 24066 30629 7.19

3.Pineapple

8102 35841 9.60 8507 37633 10.00 8932 40643 10.80

4.Banana

4000 14717 13.5 4160 15452 14.00 4368 16688 15.12

 

 

 

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